Making pomanders is a very old tradition and they were often carried during a pandemic. Cities were very smelly, and it was thought disease was caused by the stench. It was believed that the pleasant scent of a pomander could repel the diseases in the air. Rich people (including Queen Elizabeth I) owned fancy gold & silver pomanders but even orange & clove pomanders were expensive, due to the rarity of their exotic ingredients. Pomanders look lovely and make the air smell ‘Christmassy’.