Queen Elizabeth I died on 24 March 1603 at the age of 69, after a reign of 45 years. She had no children, so her heir was King James VI of Scotland, who then also became King James I of England. He was the son of Elizabeth’s rival Mary, Queen of Scots.

However, England and Scotland continued as two separate states sharing a monarch, who directed their domestic and foreign policy, until the Acts of Union of 1707. This was when United into ‘One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain’.

Picture: Scottish Union Flag depicted in the 1704 edition of The Present State of the Universe.